A temperature increase during the Holocene Thermal Optimum triggered the development of the Funnel Beaker Culture settlement in Central Poland (Kuyavia Lakeland)


  • Plociennik, M. 1
  • Papiernik, P. 2
  • Kittel, P. 3
  • Galka, M. 4
  • Makohonienko, M. 5
  • Mroczkowska, A. 6
  • Apolinarska, K. 7
  • Panfil, M. 5
  • Kotrys, B. 8
  • Luoto, T. P. 9
  • Peyron, O. 10
  • Krapiec, M. 11
  • Swierk, K. 12
  • 1 University of Lodz, Dept. of Invert. Zool. and Hydrobiol., 12/16 Banacha St., Lodz 90-237, Poland
    2 Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography in Lodz, 14 Wolnosci Sq., Lodz 91-415, Poland
    3 University of Lodz, Dept. of Geomorph. and Palaeogeog., 88 Narutowicza St., Lodz 90-139, Poland
    4 University of Lodz, Dept. of Geobot. and Plant Ecol., 12/16 Banacha, Lodz 90-237, Poland
    5 Adam Mickiewicz University, Inst. of Geoeco. and Geoinfo., 10 Krygowskiego St., 61-680 Poznan, Poland
    6 Polish Academy of Sciences, Past Landsc. Dynam. Lab., Ins. of Geogr. and Spat. Org., 51/55 Twarda St., Warsaw 00-818, Poland
    7 Adam Mickiewicz University, Inst. of Geol., 12 Krygowskiego St., 61-680 Poznan, Poland
    8 Pom. Branch, Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute, 20 Wieniawskiego St., Szczecin 71-130, Poland
    9 University of Helsinki, Ecosys. and Envir. Res. Prog., 15140 Lahti, Finland
    10 Universite de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, UMR 5554 ISEM, Montpellier, France
    11 AGH University of Science and Technology, Geoph. and Envir. Prot., 30 Mickiewicza Av., 30-039 Krakow, Poland
    12 Ist High School, 6 Mikolaja Kopernika St., Piotrkow Tryb. 97-300, Poland




<strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> climate reconstruction, multi-proxy study, Mesolithic, Neolithic, peri-Baltic region


The Wietrzychowice Cultural Park protects one of the last preserved megalithic barrows of the Funnel Beaker Culture people at the Kuyavia Lakeland (Central Poland). Archaeological excavations of the lake palaeolittoral zone were conducted on the nearby Karania Lake shore. Numerous Mesolithic and Neolithic remains were excavated including: flint artefacts, potsherds, arrowheads, and mammal bones with traces of human processing. The SM9G2 core from the miey site covers gyttias and peats with the Holocene history of Karania Lake. The age-depth model is based on 3 AMS and 3 LSC radiocarbon dates as well as cultural remains. The bottom section of the core (275-190cm b.g.l.) includes the record of the early to mid-Holocene layers that fall on the Mesolithic and Neolithic in the region. The multi-proxy study (geochemistry, plant macrofossils, pollen, Mollusca, Cladocera and Chironomidae analyses) were conducted on the Mesolithic-Neolithic section of the core. Additionally, Chironomidae subfossil analysis was conducted on the SM1 core from another part of the Karania Lake shore zone, documenting the mid-Holocene age of the lake littoral shore development.